Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent’s court.
History of Tennis Game
Tennis is a sport played by people of all ages, on all levels of society. Basically, anyone who can hold a racquet, even those in wheelchairs, can play the game of tennis. It is played by millions of people recreationally, and it is a popular spectator sport as well.
The earliest origins of tennis can be traced back to 12th century France, where a game was played that involved striking a ball with the palm of the hand. It was not until the 16th century that racquets began being used and the game began to be called “tennis,” from the Old French term tenez, which can be translated as “hold,” “receive,” or “take.” Tennis then was played largely indoors, and it was actually the invention of the lawn mower in 1830 which helped eventually move the sport outside.
Between 1859 and 1865, Harry Gem and his friend, Augurio Perera, developed a game which combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera’s croquet lawn in Birmingham, England, United Kingdom. Along with two local doctors, they founded the world’s first tennis club in Leamington Spa in 1872. Much of the credit for modern tennis, however, goes to Walter Clopton Wingfield, who patented a similar game in 1873 called sphairistikè. He even produced a boxed set with a net, poles, racquets, and balls for playing the game. U.S. socialite Mary Ewing Outerbridge purchased one of the sets and eventually helped bring the first American National championship to Staten Island, New York, in September 1880.
The four major championships in tennis today are referred to as the “Grand Slam.” The Grand Slam consists of the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon, and the U.S. Open. Apart from the Olympic Games, the Davis Cup, the Fed Cup, and the Hopman Cup, they are the only tournaments regulated by the International Tennis Federation (ITF). Grand Slam tournaments are the only tour events which feature mixed doubles play. They also carry larger prize funds, are worth double the number of ranking points to the champion, and feature more singles players than other tournaments.
Tennis is played in every country around the world, making it the universal sport in the world. This universality and accessibility rank tennis among the top five most popular sports around the globe.
Tennis Court Dimensions & Layout
In total, tennis courts measure 78 ft. x 36 ft. or 2,808 sq. ft., however, the full area of the court is only used for doubles matches. The singles court measures 78 ft. x 27 ft. or 2,106 sq. ft. Every court is composed of quite a few elements, so let’s take a look at each individual component.
Length: 78 feet (23.77 m)
Width: 27 feet (8.23 m)
Length: 78 feet (23.77 m)
Width : 36 feet (10.97 m)
Types of Court
Clay courts are considered as “slow” court which means the balls bounce relatively high and more slowly, making is difficult for the player to hit an unreturnable shot. On clay courts, line calls are easily reviewable because the ball leaves a visible mark.The French Open is played on Clay court
Grass court as considered as “fast” court and it adds an additional variable, with bounces depending on how healthy the grass is and how recently it has been mowed. Of the major Grand Slam tournaments, the Wimbledon is played on the grass court.
The hardcourt encompasses many different surfaces, ranging from old-fashioned concrete courts to coated asphalt to wooden gymnasium surfaces to artificial grass similar to AstroTurf.Hardcourts are also considered as “fast” surfaces, where fast, low bounces keep rallies short, and powerful, hard-serving players have an advantage.
Object of the Game
The game of tennis played on a rectangular court with a net running across the center. The aim is to hit the ball over the net landing the ball within the margins of the court and in a way that results in your opponent being unable to return the ball. You win a point every time your opponent is unable to return the ball to the court.
The diameter of the ball shall be in between 2 1/2 inch and 2 5/8 inches and its weight is in between 2 and 2 1/16 ounces. The ball shall have a uniform outer surface and shall be white or yellow in color.
The hitting surface of the racket shall be flat and consist of a pattern of crossed strings connected to a frame and alternately interlaced or bonded where they cross and the stringing pattern shall be generally uniform. The frame of the racket shall not exceed 32 inches including the handle and 12 1/2 inches in overall width.
In regards to the shoes for a junior player, it is best to get a pair that provides certain characteristics. First and foremost, they need to provide lightweight performance. Tennis is a game that requires constant movement and ability to change directions on the fly. Next, they need to allow for stability. Due to the fast-paced nature of the game, players are highly susceptible to sprained ankles and other lower leg injuries. Breathability is also immensely important. In most areas tennis can be played year round.
While playing in 50-60 degree weather isn’t bad, competing in 90-100 degree weather can become intense. Having a pair of shoes that keeps air flowing to your feet can help to some degree. You’ll find the best quality tennis shoes from the brands Nike, Adidas, and Asics. Again, as with the racquets, you don’t have to get the most expensive pair at the start. Rather, you can get a more reasonable pair that also possesses some of the attributes listed above.
As a beginner learning how to play tennis, they must also understand the way a tennis point is scored. A tennis player can serve from the left side of the baseline for the second point of the game and the opponent can continue to alternate right and left to start with each point of the game. If supposing we win the first point, then at the start of next point, the score must be announced first. For example like “15 all” or “15 love”. The points will be like this love-0, then 15, 30, 40 if we win the points and if our opponents also get point till 40 then it becomes Deuce. And in case we get a point after the Deuce, then it becomes Advantage. Then after Advantage, if we win the point then we win the game. And if we lose a point after the Advantage, then it will again go to Deuce and then continue.
Who Serves First in Tennis Game
Usually, the age old question of who serves first is settled by a simple coin toss. The person who wins the coin toss may elect to serve first or select a side of the court which he would like to receive his opponents serve.
The server will continue serving the ball to the receiver until the set has ended. After the set has ended, the receiver will become the server and serve the ball until the next set has ended. This process is repeated throughout the match.
Scoring in Tennis Game
You need to score four points to win a game of tennis. The points are known as 15 (1 point), 30 (two points), 40 (three points) and the fourth would result in the winning point and the end of that game. If the scores went to 40-40 this would be known as deuce. When a game reaches deuce the player must then win by two clear points.
Quick Facts about Tennis
Q: What is the length and width of a tennis court?
A: The width of a tennis court is 78 feet or 39 feet on each side of the net. The width is 36 feet for doubles and 27 feet for singles.
Q: How tall should the net be?
A: It should be on the ground and three feet tall at the center.
Q: How far should tennis courts be apart from each other?
A: A minimum of 12 feet.
Q: How much space should there be between the court and the fence (backstop)?
A: 21 feet is the minimum recommendation.
Q: How far is the pole from the sideline?
A: Three feet.
Q: How wide should the lines be?
A: Two inches.
In or Out!
Whether a shot is “IN” or “OUT” is the big question behind every shot and why tennis pros like Agassi and McEnroe unleash fury on match officials. Here is a guide to both the singles and doubles game.
In a game of singles, the ball must be hit within both “SERVICE COURTS”, the “BACKCOURT” and the “ALLEY LINE” as marked in the diagram below for a point to be scored. Balls hit in the between the “SIDELINE” and “ALLEY LINE” are considered balls hit out of court and thus earning your opponent a point.
In a doubles game, the ball must be hit within both “SERVICE COURTS”, the “BACKCOURT” and the area between the “ALLEY LINE” and “SIDELINE” for a point to be scored.
Rules of Tennis Game
- The game starts with a coin toss to determine which player must serve first and which side they want to serve from.
- The server must then serve each point from alternative sides on the baseline. At no point must the server’s feet move in front of the baseline on the court prior to hitting their server.
- If the server fails to get their first serve in they may take advantage of a second serve. If they again fail to get their second serve in then a double fault will be called and the point lost.
- If the server clips the net but the ball goes in the service area still then let is called and they get to take that serve again without penalty. If the ball hits the net and fails to go in the service area then out is called and they lose that serve.
- The receiver may stand where they wish upon receipt of the server. If the ball is struck without the serve bouncing then the server will receive the point.
- Once a serve has been made a number of shots between the players can be unlimited. The point is won by hitting the ball so the opponent fails to return it in the scoring areas.
- Points are awarded in scores of 15, 30 and 40. 15 represent 1 point, 30 = 2 and 40 = 3. You
- need 4 points to win a game. If a game lands on 40-40 it’s known as deuce. From deuce, a player needs to win 2 consecutive points to win the game. After winning one point from deuce they player is on an advantage. If the player wins the next point they win the game, if they lose it goes back to deuce.
- To win the set a player must win 6 games by 2 or more. The opening sets will go to a tie break if its ends up 6-6 where players play first to 7 points. The final set will not have a tie break and requires players to win by two games with no limits.
- If a player touches the net, distracts his opponent or impedes in any way then they automatically lose the point.
- The ball can hit any part of the line for the point to be called in, outside the line and the ball is out.
- The balls in a tennis match are changed for new balls every 6 games
- A player loses a point if they fail to return the ball in either the correct areas on the court, hits the net and doesn’t go into opponent’s area or fails to return the ball before it bounces twice in their half.
Facts about Tennis Game
- The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as “lawn tennis”.
- A competent tennis player has eight basic shots in his or her repertoire: the serve, forehand, backhand, volley, half-volley, overhead smash, drop shot, and lob.
- There are four Grand Slam tournaments: The Australian Open, The French Open, Wimbledon and the US Open.
- The Williams sisters have won a total of 24 Grand Slam Tournaments (Venus- 7, Serena- 17).
- Prior to the use of rackets in tennis, people used their palms to hit the ball back and forth.
- Arthur Ashe was the first African American to win the U.S. Open.
- Venus and Serena Williams became the first set of sisters to ever win Olympic gold medals in tennis.
- The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 210 national tennis associations or corresponding organizations of independent countries or territories.
- There are five types of court surface used in professional play: Clay, Hard, Glass, Carpet and Wood.
- Serena has played Venus 24 times with Serena holding a 14-10 edge.
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