IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation)
IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation) is a procedure, used to overcome a range of fertility issues, by which an egg and sperm are joined together outside the body, in a specialized laboratory. The fertilized egg (embryo) is allowed to grow in a protected environment for some days before being transferred into the woman’s uterus increasing the chance that a pregnancy will occur.
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) can be used to overcome a range of fertility issues and for many couples, gives them the best chance of having a baby.
The cost will be from 2 lacs to 5 lacs depending on the type of treatment you choose for eg. if you go for ICSI or Frozen embryo program it may increase. Now it has been told that certain hospital like AIIMS is trying to offer IVF for lower cost since now infertility has become a major issue due to the changed lifestyle and increased work pressure and infertility treatment has to be made available to poor and middle-class people also.
A egg can be frozen for upto 10 years. egg thaw rates of 75% and fertilization rates of 75% are anticipated in women up to 38 years of age. Thus, if 10 eggs are frozen, 7 are expected to survive the thaw, and 5 to 6 are expected to fertilize and become embryos. Usually 3-4 embryos are transferred in women up to 38 years of age. We therefore recommend that 10 eggs be stored for each pregnancy attempt. Most women 38 years of age and under can expect to harvest 10- 20 eggs per cycle.
Reason for failure of IVF 5
The IVF lab
We also review the laboratory process for anything unusual. The temperature and gas profiles in the Embryology Laboratory and within the incubators are closely reviewed. Laboratory reagents (such as culturing media and layering oil) that are in close contact with the embryos must pass strict quality control tests by the manufacturer, and once arrived, have to pass our own quality control tests before they can be used.
Reason for failure of IVF 4
Embryo selection method
an embryo that gradually reaches the 8 cell stage by day three is much more likely to do well than an embryo that has delayed fertilization and rapid growth towards the end of this time period.
Reason for failure of IVF 3
The stimulation protocol
In the event of a failed cycle, the stimulation protocol is reviewed for possible improvement. Understimulation with a low starting dose of stimulation medications or prolonged pituitary suppression with Lupron and/or the birth control pill can result in slow ovarian response. Cycles that require more than 12 days of stimulation have been associated with lower rates of pregnancy.Hyperstimulation, on the other hand, can also contribute to treatment failure. The endometrium can age prematurely due to early rise of progesterone during the stimulation phase.
Reason for failure of IVF 2
Although abnormal sperm appear to be a less common factor affecting the success of an IVF cycle, they nevertheless play an important supporting role. Studies suggest that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm is far greater than that seen in eggs. However, whereas a chromosomally abnormal oocyte may lead to a chromosomally abnormal pregnancy, chromosomally abnormal sperm appear to not be able to successfully fertilize an egg.Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was developed to enable men with very low sperm counts, low motility, or very few normal sperm to be able to achieve fertilization and pregnancy.
Reason for failure of IVF 1
Poor egg quality
As the cells divide, the chromosomes from the original cells migrate along special pathways (the mitotic spindles) into the daughter cells. With time, these migrating tracts can become defective resulting in abnormal separation of the chromosomes. The result is an embryo with an abnormal number of chromosomes that, depending on the severity of the error, may stop growing at an early stage in the lab or eventually ends as a biochemical pregnancy or first trimester miscarriage.
Age has a great impact on the egg. After age 30 egg quantity and quality begin to decline and the rate accelerates after age 35, so that by age 40 only about 10% of a woman’s eggs are normal. The decrease in egg number, when combined with poor egg quality, often translates into a lower chance of creating a normal embryo with IVF.
The risk of birth defects in the general population is low: two per cent of children in Europe are born with birth defects. Although some research suggests that fertility treatment may be associated with an increased incidence of birth defects, this risk remains low.
Some research suggests that ART techniques are associated with longer-term health issues in the children born. Whether there is a direct link is yet to be conclusively agreed, as it is possible that the association is due to other factors. These could relate to underlying subfertility in the patients.
Multiple births. IVF increases the risk of multiple births if more than one embryo is implanted in your uterus. A pregnancy with multiple fetuses carries a higher risk of early labor and low birth weight than pregnancy with a single fetus does.
Premature delivery and low birth weight. Research suggests that use of IVF slightly increases the risk that a baby will be born early or with a low birth weight.
Although it is rare, fertility medications may cause ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS). Symptoms of OHSS may include abdominal pain or a feeling of being bloated. More severe symptoms include the following:
Nausea or vomiting
Decreased urinary frequency
Shortness of breath
Severe stomach pains and bloating
Ten pound weight gain within three to five days
Enlargement of the ovaries
41-43% for women under age 35
33-36% for women ages 35 to 37
23-27% for women ages 38 to 40
13-18% for women ages over 40
The embryos are usually transferred into the woman’s uterus three to five days following egg retrieval and fertilization. A catheter or small tube is inserted into the uterus to transfer the embryos. This procedure is painless for most women, although some may experience mild cramping. If the procedure is successful, implantation typically occurs around six to ten days following egg retrieval.
It is important that the doctor and the couple wishing to have a child discuss how many embryos should be transferred. Generally speaking, doctors should only transfer more than one embryo if there are no ideal embryos available.
The eggs will be mixed with your partner’s or the donor’s sperm and cultured in the laboratory for 16–20 hours after which they are checked for signs of fertilisation.
Those that have been fertilised (now called embryos) will be grown in the laboratory incubator for up to six days. The embryologist will monitor the development of the embryos and the best will then be chosen for transfer. Any remaining embryos of suitable quality can be frozen for future use.
When we have evidence through the ultrasound scans that the follicles have reached an adequate size, and we consider that there are a suitable number of oocytes, we schedule follicular puncture 36 hours after administering an injection of the hormone hCG which causes the oocytes to mature in a similar way to the way they would in a natural cycle.
Puncture is carried out in the operating theatre under sedation so that the patient does not feel any kind of discomfort during the procedure, which lasts approximately 15 minutes.
Women are given a drug (generally in the form of a daily injection) for about two weeks, which suppresses their natural menstrual cycle.
Fertility drugs containing the fertility hormone FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), are administered to the woman. FSH makes the ovaries produce more eggs than normal. Vaginal ultrasound scans can monitor the process in the ovaries.
you are using donated eggs or your own frozen eggs in your treatment
you are using embryo testing to avoid passing on a genetic condition to your child.
In-vitro fertilization is ideal for women who have not been able to become pregnant through regular unprotected intercourse or after 12 cycles of artificial insemination
Women suffering from advanced endometriosis, with probable repercussions on the tubes and on oocyte quality.
Situations in which a limited number of oocytes are available.
Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes
Male factor infertility including decreased sperm count or sperm motility
Women with ovulation disorders, premature ovarian failure, uterine fibroids
Women who have had their fallopian tubes removed
You or your partner have been diagnosed with unexplained infertility
Other techniques such as the use of fertility drugs or intrauterine insemination (IUI) have been unsuccessful.
The inability of sperm to penetrate or survive in the cervical mucus
In Vitro Fertilization is a one assisted reproductive technology (ART) commonly referred to as IVF. IVF is the process of fertilization by manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish, and then transferring the embryo to the uterus. Other forms of ART include gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT).
A normal fertilisation is that which takes place inside the woman's body. Fertilisation usually takes place in the ampullary portion of the fallopian tube. The mature ovum released form the ovary and the sperm which travels up the uterus after coitus meets there and the sperm penetrates the ovary.
Archeological Survey in TamilNadu
Archaeology studies the story of man’s past through his material remains. The word archaeology comes from the Greek word ‘Archaios’ Ancient and ‘logos’ theory or science.
Archaeology is essentially a method of reconstructing the past from the surviving traces of former societies. Both archaeology and history are concerned with the study of human past. Archaeology presents another method of approach to history, a study of human cultures through the material remains.
Matangesvara Temple is a Hindu temple located in the town of Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu,
The Draupadi Ratha is a monument in the Pancha Rathas complex at Mahabalipuram,
It is believed that the temple was built by king Narasimhadeva I of Eastern Ganga Dynasty in 1255 CE.
A Jain temple is the place of worship for Jains, the followers of Jainism,
Rock-cut architecture is the practice of creating buildings and other physical structures by carving natural rock.
The Brahmapureeswarar Temple is a Hindu Temple located in Thirupattur near Trichy, India.
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past
The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 CE.
Indus Valley Civilisation
The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain because the Indus script is still undeciphered.
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India was established in the year 1861.
The Ancient brick structure found at the ASI's excavation site at Keesha
It remains unclear when, why, and by whom the earliest dolmens were made.
Henna is used for many reasons including self-expression the celebration of special occasions like weddings, holidays & birthdays; inspiration; reminders; beauty; cosmetic treatments; medicinal uses; blessings & well-being; to be part of an ancient tradition, and an alternative or precursor to a tattoo.
The art of applying henna in hands and feet is known as Mehndi and it is a very old custom and ancient art form of the Asian subcontinent. The propagators were the Mughals. The Mughals taught us all about the history of Mehndi and introduced it to India during 12th century AD. During that period the royal and rich use to decorate them with it. The patterns were intricately made by the artists or the beauticians.
Indian weddings are incomplete without the mehndi ceremony. The ritual of mehndi ceremony is followed in every part of the country where the hands of the bride are adorned with the lovely red color of the mehndi. On these festive or wedding occasions mostly traditional Indian designs are made in the hands of the bride.
Mostly the young girls are crazy about henna tattoos and also permanent tattoos.
Simple henna Design for Leg
Henna designs are mostly famous in India-Pakistan and Arab countries.
Leg Henna tattoo is a beautiful way of natural tattoos that looks awesome on girls leg.
The bridal patterns can take hours and are often done by multiple henna artists.
The most popular of the traditions is the Mehndi Night where the bride, her family, relatives and friends get together to celebrate the wedding to come.
Henna is considered an herb, and has long been known to have healing qualities
Henna was used for cosmetic purposes in the Roman Empire
Mehndi or turmeric was originally used for women’s hands.
Mehndi is a natural dye derived from the stems and leaves of the henna plant.
Simple and Super popular original Henna design
New Skoda Rapid
Skoda Rapid facelift is all set to be launched on November 3, 2016. The sedan is expected to carry same engines of the present Rapid along with a turbocharger to boost its power figures. This will be a major facelift for the vehicle since 2011. It is likely to get the 1.5-litre TDI motor of the newly launched Volkswagen Ammo with a tweaked engine which pushes the power figures to 110PS. The 1.6-litre petrol will be the same as seen in the existing version. The looks of the new Rapid have been radically enhanced with Octavia- and Superb-inspired front grille and newer headlamps. Overall the design has gone a notch higher.
Christmas is full of familiar traditions: carving the ham, leaving cookies out for Santa, listening to Uncle Morty talk about his gall bladder removal surgery while you’re trying to enjoy some egg nog. These staples had to come from somewhere, and since Christmas offers a mix of religious and secular traditions, their origins are just as mixed and varied.
He may not be in the gift giving business for the big bucks, but Santa still needs money to keep his operation rolling. (And to pay for the elves’ dental plan. Those elf unions are ruthless.) Thankfully, Santa’s wealth surpasses even Scrooge McDuck’s money bin. Forbes compiled a list of the world’s richest fictional people and St. Nick topped it with a net worth of infinity. This beats the world’s current net worth record holder, Mexican investor Carlos Slim Helu, who only topped out at a measly $74 billion. No wonder Santa’s so jolly.
Gift For Men
Gift For Women
A Hindu temple or mandir is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism.Hindu temples come in many styles, are situated in diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs, yet almost all of them share certain core ideas, symbolism, and themes.
Baby in the Womb
Babies cry in the womb – this starts at about 26 weeks from conception. Don’t worry, as crying is an important communication tool for babies, it’s understandable they are honing their technique before they enter the world!
Babies start to sleep from 4 weeks after conception. But what’s more, the REM sleep waves associated with the eye movements of dreams have been identified by 30 weeks after conception. So your little one might even be having a dream or two.
Foetus at 4 weeks of pregnancy
At 4 weeks a small ring can be seen in the decidua. This is the foetus and it has no foetal pole or heartbeat. Heartbeat establishes only at 5 weeks.
foetus at 6 weeks of pregnancy
A clear gestational sac is seen. The sac is regular. The yolk sac is seen. Crown-rump length is 4.3 mm. Foetal heartbeat is seen
This is performed between 11-13 weeks of pregnancy. This along with a blood test is done to rule out down's syndrome in the baby
4D image of a 20 week baby in womb by USG
It's better to go for a 4D scan at 20 weeks because even any abnormality in the soft parts can be made out by this method
Baby at 19-20 weeks of scan 2D
This is an anomaly scan. it is done at around 20 weeks. Here the sonologist sees for the baby's heartbeat, his bones and other organs. This scan is done to see if there is any abnormality in any part of the baby
An interval growth scan is done at 32 weeks. This is to see if the baby's growth is normal. It is similar to scan at 38-40 weeks. Same parameters are measured. See further.
The weight of the baby in womb is calculated with the BPD, FL and AC. The weight is calculated by a computerised software.
Amniotic fluid index(AFI)
This is done mostly after 32 weeks, The liquor in all four quadrants around the baby is checked. They are vertical measurements of liquor pockets and the total value should be between 10- 15
Foetus at 40 weeks pregnancy
This is the FL or femur length. Measures the longest bone in the body and reflects the longitudinal growth of the fetus. It is the single most important guide as to the growth of the foetus. Normal value is 76 mm.
foetus at 40 weeks of pregnancy
This is the abdominal circumference of the foetus at 40 weeks. This is the single most reliable measurement of the baby's weight at term. The normal value is 354 mm.
foetus at 40 weeks of pregnancy
This is the BPD(biparietal diameter) of the baby. It is the diameter between the 2 sides of the head. At 40 weeks it is 95-97 mm. The head circumference can also be taken. It is usually 344 mm
With all this follow-up scan finally you will be blessed with a lovely baby. In case of any complication, you will have to undergo more scans and doppler studies. But this set of scan is routine.