Interesting Facts about -Brain – Anatomy
CSF can be obtained by
Cisternal puncture or
Lumbar puncture is the easiest method and is commonly used
It is done by passing a needle in the interspace between the third and fourth lumbar spines.
Biochemical analysis of CSF is of diagnostic value in various diseases.
Obstruction to the flow of CSF in the ventricular system of the brain leads to hydrocephalus in children and raised the intracranial pressure in adults.
Drainage of CSF at regular intervals is of therapeutic value in meningitis.
Certain intractable headaches of unknown etiology are also known to have been cured by a mere lumbar puncture with drainage of CSF.
Obstruction in the vertebral canal produces Froin’s syndrome or location syndrome. This is characterized by yellowish discoloration of CSF below the level of obstruction, and its spontaneous coagulation after withdrawal due to a high protein content. Biochemical examination of such fluid reveals that the protein content. Biochemical examination of such fluid reveals that the protein content is raised, but the cell content is raised but the cell content is normal. This is known as albumin – cytologic dissociation.
Hydrocephalus: It is the dilation of the ventricular system and occurs due to obstruction of CSF circulation. It mat be the following types:
Communication: If the obstruction is outside the ventricular system, usually in the subarachnoid is outside the ventricular system, usually in the subarachnoid space or arachnoid granulations, it is termed as communication. This occurs due to fibrosis following meningitis. It is also called external hydrocephalus.
Clinical features are
- Head size is rather large
- Tense anterior large
- Dilated veins over thin scalp
Non – Communicating: If the obstruction is within the ventricular system. It is called non-communication or internal hydrocephalus.
This is usually caused by a tumor or inflammation. A shunt procedure is employed to divert the CSF from the ventricular system into the peritoneal cavity.
Hydrocephalus ex-vacuum: Occurs as a compensatory mechanism due to atrophy of brain parenchyma. It is seen in dementia or Alzheimer’s
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