AKBAR’S CHILDREN AND THEIR MOTHER’S
This article will mainly concentrate on the Akbar’s surviving kids and their mother’s identity.
The historical chronicles of Akbar’s reign like Akbarnama, Tabaqat I Akbari, Darbari I Akbari, Muntakhab Ut Tawarikh, Father Monserrate account on Akbar and Akbar and the Jesuits does not document the identity of the mother’s of Akbar’s children.
Link to Akbarnama
|Abū al-Fażl “ʿAllāmī” ibn Mubārak, Šayḫ|
Jahangir in his Autobiography-The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri; (page no 38,39) gives the mothers identity.
There is no evidence about the mother’s identity in Shahjahan’s or Aurangazeb’s chronicle.Blochmann in Ain I Akbari had given an account of it.
I)Prince SALIM(Emperor Jahangir): First surviving son of Emperor Akbar.
Jahangir’s mother was Mariam Zamani, the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber.He was born on 31st August 1569.
The mother of Salim to be Raja Bharmal’s daughter was recorded only in one book of the Mughal era. That book is Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh, written by a Punjab Historian Sujan Rai Bandar, during Aurangzeb’s reign in 1695.He had written about the history of Hindustan, in which Mughal history was just a part of the book.Sujan Rai mentions in his book that the Amber princess, the third wife of Akbar was Salim’s mother.First of all Amber princess was the fourth wife.He had missed the second wife who was the granddaughter of Munim Khan whose wedding was celebrated in 1557.He had missed it because he was not in the Mughal court.
Jahangir refers his mother as Mariam Zamani in his memoir and does not give her identity.He mentions Raja Bharmal’s daughter to be a lady in his father’s harem. He does not say Rajabharmal’s family members as his mother’s relation(The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri;vol 1 page no 15)
The Rajput Chronicle is silent about it.
Akbarnama mentions about the Jaisalmer princess, wife of Akbar giving birth to a girl baby and passing away in 1 year(Akbarnama Volume III page 283), but is silent about Amber princess giving birth to Salim
A firman of Mariam Zamani was traced.In that firman also her identity was not given.The name is mentioned by title Wali nimat Mariam Zamani,mother of Jahangir.
Salim’s mother was referred to as a royal concubine of Akbar in the book “The empire of the great Mogol By J.S.Holland”.It is a latin book written by Joannes De laet a Geographer in the year 1631. Historian Vincent has a opinion that Delaet has copied it from certain reliable Persian chronicle, but certain historian doubt the authenticity of the book.page no 147-148-REF-Full text of “The Empire Of The Great Mogol” – Internet Archive
Since Sujan Rai, a historian during Mughal era had documented that Raja Bharmals daughter was Salim’s mother in his book which is a trustworthy book by Historian’s we will agree to it.
Mariam Zamani gave birth to only one kid of Akbar that is Emperor Jahangir
Mariam zamani died in 1623 as documented in Jahangirnama(Tūzuk-i Jahāngīrī vol 2 page 262)
Khanam was born through a concubine.She was born on 21st November 1569.
The kid was handed over to Mariyam Makani- Akbar’s mother as she was an elderly person and could take better care of the child than a concubine.One more reason behind this decision of Akbar is, Mariam Makani had lost her two daughters(Akbar’s sisters) when she traveled from Kabul to India.The girls were within ten years.Maybe based on it Akbar had handed over his daughter to Mariyam makani.( The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri;page no34)
Khanam’s mother died during Akbar’s reign in 1599.( Akbar-nāmah vol 3 page no 1131)
Murad was born through a concubine.He was born on June 7th, 1570.He passed away at the age of 30 years.
Akbar celebrated the birth of both Salim and Murad in the same way so that Murad does not get a feeling that he was born through a concubine.
Akbar also saw Murad in the third month same as Salim.
He was born through a concubine on September 9, 1572.He was left under the care of Raja Bharmal for six months.When Akbar went for the conquest of Gujarat, he took his pregnant wife with him.Since she came near childbirth and could not withstand the journey, Akbar left her in Saint Daniyals house in Ajmer and went to Gujarat with his harem.In the saint house, Daniyal was born.After one month Akbar sends his son to Amber which was nearest to Ajmer. Raja Bharmals wife who was an elderly person took care of Daniyal.This Akbar did for his son’s safety and also to honor RajaBharmal.He picked up Daniyal after six months when he went to Agra.
Daniyals mother died in 1596 as documented in Akbarnama(Akbarnama.Volume IIIChapter:CXXVIII.Page no1063.)
There are also historical records that Daniyal’s mother could be the legendary Anarkali.The first historical mention of Anarkali was found in the travelogue of the British tourist and trader William Finch, who came to Lahore during 1608 to 1611.According to Finch’s account, Anarkali was one of the wives of EmperorAkbar and mother of his son Daniyal sha.Akbar developed the suspicion that Anarkali had an incestuous relationship with Prince Salim(Jahangir) upon which he entombed her within a wall of his palace where she died.Jahangir as a token of love ordered a magnificent tomb built for her.Edward Terry who visited a year after William Finch writes that Akbar had threatened to disinherit Jahangir, for his liaison with Anarkali, the emperor’s most beloved wife.But on his death bed, Akbar repealed it. “Early travels in India, 1583-1619”
But the account of the British traveler is falsified when one comes to know that Daniyal’s mother died in 1596 which does not match the dates inscribed on the sarcophagus that is 1599.
It clearly shows that Daniyal’s mother death had been prominent during Akbar’s period in Lahore.
V)Shahzadah SHAKRU-UN-NISSA begum:
Her mother’s name was Beiby Daulat begum.(The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri;vol 1 page 34)
VI)Shahzadah ARAM BANU BEGAM:
She was born to the same Beiby Daulat begum.She was born on 22 December 1584( The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri;vol 1 page 34)
The account of his last two daughters is given in Jahanginama and Ain I Akbari.Historical chronicles are clear about it and all of them coincide.(This wife seems to be Akbar’s favorite for two daughters are born through her and when Akbar was 42.)
Wheeler M Thackston had also translated Jahangirnama, his version is same as Tuzuki i Jahangir.In that he has documented that Shahzadah Khanam, Prince Murad, Prince Daniyal was born through concubine and Beiby Daulat Begum was the mother of Shakru un nissa and Arum banu begum.
AUTHENTICITY OF TUZUKI I JAHANGIRI
Jahangir wrote his autobiography himself. Once he wrote the first 12 years, he made several copies.He gave the first copy to Shahjahan.Few copies of it had been traced after 300 years, in which Tuzuki is the authentic version.The copies that have been traced were translated.
The Tuzuki I Jahangiri is the authentic version of Jahangirnama proved by the historians.Tuzuki was first translated from the edition of Sayaid Ahmad by Roger and then edited and released by Henry Beveridge.Henry Beveridge has edited Tuzuki using two excellent manuscripts.One manuscript was from the British Museum translated by William Irskine which was a very excellent and good version.The other one was in India, and this was also a good version The events Jahangir had written in Tuzuki coincides with the events written by Foreign travelers in their book.These travelers were there in Jahangir’s court.The details about the kids of Akbar’s and Jahangir’s is the same in both Tuzuki i Jahangiri and Akbarnama proving Tuzuki to be the authentic version.The mother’s identity alone is not given in Akbarnama, but it is provided in Tuzuki, all the other details of both the book, regarding the kid’s matches.
There was one more version of Jahangirnama first identified which was translated by David price.Price version had been proved to be the unauthentic version, manipulated by Nurjahan for the sake of her son in law Sharyar who was born through a concubine.To hide her son in laws parentage that version had tampered( Memoirs of the Emperor Jahangueir by David price page no20). Wherever Jahangir had mentioned concubine names of ladies were given.That version also provides a lot of praises of Nurjahan and her family.Historians have clearly proved Tuzuki to be the authentic version and David price version to be unauthentic one.
PRINCE MURAD AND SALIMA SULTANA BEGUM
Prince Murad taken to Salima Sultana Begum was given only by the historian Vincent who had written the book in the 18th century after the Mughal era.Vincent’s book concentrates more on Akbar’s achievements rather than his personal life.No historical chronicle of Mughal era says Murad was born to Salima.
Disclaimer: The information is from historical chronicles of Akbar’s and Jahangir’s reign i.e from 15th and 16th century historical chronicle and not from books written by later historians books or my own interpretation of lines of historical chronicles. People can go through historical books like Jahangirnama and Akbarnama and Ain i Akbari which are available in the net.
Also read my article CHILDREN OF AKBAR AND MARIAM ZAMANI: